Chickpea flour, also known as garbanzo bean flour, besan flour, and gram flour, is common in India and the Middle East. Made from ground chickpeas, this flour has a nutty flavor and is often used as a gluten-free substitute for wheat flour; some traditional dishes made with chickpea flour include hummus, chickpea fries, pancakes, and fritters.
The second most produced and consumed flour (after wheat flour), maize flour is the ground and desiccated seed of the maize plant. It's used primarily for making Mexican tortillas, tacos and nachos, but can also be used in cornbread, Makki do Roti, or any other dish calling for corn flour meal.
Available in white or brown (usually interchangeable), rice flour is made from ground rice and is often used for noodles in Asian cuisines. Rice flour is also often used for gluten-free baked goods.
Used for anything from pancakes to scones, banana flour is made by freeze drying pureed bananas.
Sweet Potato Flour
This high-fiber flour is made from white sweet potatoes and is, of course, somewhat sweetly flavored. Sweet potato flour is versatile, uses ranging from thickening gravies to making doughnuts.
Buckwheat is actually not a form of wheat; it is a fruit seed, related to rhubarb. Buckwheat flour brings a strong nutty taste and can be used in noodles, crepes, and other gluten-free foods.
Described as nutty, earthy, and grassy, amaranth flour is made by grinding the seeds of the same name plant. It was widely used by the Aztec and Inca civilizations of pre-Columbia Americans, and is great for cereals, pastas, breads, cookies, and more. It also can be combined with other flours.
A sweet and nutty flour, millet is often used in combination with other types of flour to produce crumbly cakes, cookies, and sweet breads. It also can be used in savory dishes, such as meatloaf.
This ground potato powder is often used as a thickener or a flavor and texture enhancer. Although potato flour can be used in baking, it often shouldn't be directly substituted.
Packed with protein and fiber, quinoa flour can be used as a thickener, but is typically added to other flours or ingredients before being used in baking. Quinoa flour can be easily made from home, which offsets its often high cost.
Coconut flour, made from coconut meat, is a great source of protein, fiber, and fat as well as lauric acid and manganese. Coconut flour can be used in both sweet and savory dishes, although it's density and absorbency will require some recipe adjustments.
Sorghum flour, also known as milo or jowar in India, is typically blended with other gluten-free flours when used for baking. Sorghum has also been used to make gluten-free beer.